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The importance of integration between more than one analytical tool to analyze structure and constituents of the same material (natural and synthetic) coming from different sources has great efficiency than using one tool of analysis. The choice of such integration is one of main objectives of our research. This choice in our research required high quality analysts in our group; i.e. of wide knowledge in inorganic, organic, physical and analytical chemistry background. The present work aims chiefly to use integrated analytical tools, in a team work, in analyses of natural and synthetic materials coming from different Egyptian resources. These materials are of great importance in different applied fields in Egypt. To achieve targets of our research; group of qualified personnel coming from different research institutes and universities in Egypt are cooperated in synchronized system. Our research work up till now (2009) achieved many targets in different Egyptian applied fields and in different directions:
Therefore this thesis shall collect the research efforts (17-111) done to declare the main idea that, integrated analytical tools and the team work can give more efficient information on structure and constituents of material coming from different sources and this is more beneficial than the use of one technique. The detailed research efforts done in order to focus on this idea are discussed as follows:
1- Analysis of Some Important Egyptian Ores and Industrial wastes:
This research involved methods used for analyses of some important Egyptian ores (1). These methods involved the use of organic and inorganic reagents, for determination of most anions and cations contents of these ores. It depends on the formation of colored complexes between heavy metals and acetone dicarboxylic acid dianilides (2), acetoacetanilide derivatives (3,4), 3-oxoglutaric acid dianilides (5), rare earthes (REEs) and acetylpydidine N-oxide (6), back titration of metal cations in their solutions by EDTA using silver amalgam electrode (7), formation of sparingly soluble salts between anions and cations and back titration of excess cations potentiometrically (8, 9 and 10) or spectrophotometrically (11, 12 and 13).
1.1. Phosphate and Monazite Ores:
The importance of this research stems from that Egyptian phosphate ores in Abu Tar-tour in the Nile Valley area Upper Egypt (1, 4) and black sands (14) in Rasheed contain a distinct amount of Rare Earth Elements (RES). Therefore this research started in cooperation with the geology department to collect natural samples of phosphates and Monazite and suggesting new analytical procedures for leaching, extraction and separation by ionic exchange of these REEs by commercial low cost acids from the collected samples to prepare solutions suitable for analyses by potentiometric (1, 4), Oxine method after Oxygen flask combustion (6, 15) and spectrophotometric (16, 17) techniques. It also involved the analysis of iron (2,5), other heavy metals (7), some anions (9, 10) and other major elements in these ores (7). These studies evaluated the REEs contents of these natural ores and design a suitable map for Egypt fields containing REEs (1, 4).
1.2. Preparation of Some Aluminum Compounds from Egyptian Kaolin Ores and Their Analyses:
The present research (M.Sc., Mokhles M. Abdel Zaher El-Abyad, 1991) is devoted to throw some light on exploitation of Egyptian kaolin in preparation and manufacturing of many inorganic aluminum compounds used in various industrial purposes such as paper, pigments, ceramic, textile and pharmaceutical industries in addition to water treatment. It involved monitoring of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, and TiO2 during preparation processes by integrated analytical tools. Detailed investigation of the progressive solid state reactions between mixture of hydrogen sulphates of sodium, potassium and ammonium with kaolin ore at different temperatures was carried out. The reaction products were separated, identified and characterized by XRD. The purified and unpurified kaolin ore was used for preparation of Al2(SO4)3.18H2O and AlCl3.6H2O. The chemical analysis of them proved that they are sufficiently pure and suitable for preparation of alumina and Al. The reaction between Al2O3 and Cr2O3 in solid solution it gave a nice green crystalline pigment of structure (Al1-xCrx)2O3 of mixed crystals. They showed excellent results for bleeding in different solvents. They showed also very high resistance toward acids and alkalis and they are of high economic values.
1.3. The Use of ICP-AES for Estimation of REEs in Egyptian Rocks and Minerals:
This research had been started with the analysis of synthetic mixtures containing major, trace and REE elements in order to test the inter-elements effect on accuracy for microdetermination of fourteen REE by ICP-ES (M.Sc. of Tyseer A.E. Lasheen, 1993). The measurements of the effects of associated elements with REES on the background signal were examined. This included thirty one elements which may be present in the different types of rocks and minerals analyzed. Different binary mixtures, ternary mixtures and fourteen REEs all together were studied and measured to elucidate the inter-element effects. From the results obtained, it was noticed that the concentration of some elements in their mixtures is always higher than the actual concentration measured individually and lead to erroneous results. These differences are related to spectral lines interferences; it can occur from uncontrolled variation in instrumental noise response, ionization, and analyte composition. Correction factors proposed allowed the direct determination of elements with successful results without any prior separation. This research was applied in analysis of Some Egyptian rocks (granite, basalt, monazite and zircon). The concentration of REEs in the measured solutions applying the correction principles made the inter-element effect negligible. Consequently; the improvement of sensitivity and substantial reduction of interferences due to the obtained equation of correction using ICP equipment had greatly enhanced the analytical potential of this technique in determination of REE in Egyptian materials (18).
This research had been extended (Ph.D. of of Tyseer A.E. Lasheen, 1999) to cover the analysis and determination of some specific elements by ICP at specific lines of certain wavelength theoretically calculated by the proposed equations used for elimination of inter-element effects. Through this research Be was determined at the proposed line of 313.045 nm in 3.5% HClO4 and W at 400.89 nm. Also Hg, Li, B, Cl, Mo, and Sn were determined in natural ores solutions using integrated analytical procedures by atomic absorption, flam photometry, ion-selective electrodes and other spectrophotometric techniques.
2- Integrated Analytical Tools Used in Some Industrial Processes:
2.1.Monitoring of concentrations of heavy metals in Withdrawals of Electroplating Process in Helwan Engineering Company (HEIC):
In the present work new indicators were suggested for spectrophotometric microdetermination of chromium as a main component and iron impurities in chromium electroplating solutions used in HEIC. The importance of this research stems from its applications in several industries and to facilitate the monitoring of Fe, Cr, and Al during these processes (11). The processes of electroplating are used for manufacturing of many kinds of utensils (M.Sc. of Amel Esmael Hassan, 1994).
New simple and accurate potentiometric and spectrophotometric procedures have been suggested and applied for fast monitoring of anodizing (13) and phosphatising baths constituents used in Helwan Engineering Industrial Company (HEIC). The suggested procedures were found to be more accurate and economic than the classical one because they permit the continuous evaluation of these constituents before withdrawing remained residuals. This prevents pollution of water resources that very near to HEIC.
In this research the phosphatising process in Zn-phosphating-nitrate accelerator gave a hard phosphatizing layer of suitable morphology, which tested by Scanning Electron Microscope/EDS and XRD tools. The crystal size and type were found to be iron content dependent. Therefore the follow of phosphate, zinc and iron concentration is very important to get a suitable phosphatizing effective process. These processes solved the problems of import of motors accessories of vehicles and public transportation buses spare parts in Egypt (Ph.D. of Amel Esmael Hassan, 2001).
2.2. Analyses of Some Food stuffs:
2.2.A: Detection and Determination of Pesticides and heavy Metal Residues in Processed and Canned Food:
This research (Ph.D. of Soad M. Abou El-Tasaheil, 2000) had been carried out to investigate the extraction, clean up and determination of methomyl and fenproppathrin residues by gas chromatography (GC) and HPLC for thiophanate-methyl. Residues of tested compounds on strawberry and grape fruit under field conditions were evaluated. The effect of industrial processing (wash, jamming, juice and juice concentration) on strawberry and (wash, drying and juice) on grape was also investigated. From the results obtained all of the above treatments lead to the removal of residues of all pesticides in most cases.
The effect and storage time on the concentration of heavy metals such as copper, iron, lead and tin in canned strawberry in different types of cans (plain, solder, plain weld, lacquered solder and lacquered weld) were also considered. The concentrations of these metals were followed by atomic absorption using graphite furnace technique. From the results obtained, it is necessary to avoid storage food in plain solder cans for more than six months because lead concentration reached maximum allowance after this period. In plain welded cans copper concentration reached maximum allowance after fifteen months; whereas in lacquered ones tin reached maximum allowance after the same period.
2.2.B: Study on Nitrites, Nitrates and Some Biogenic Amines in Certain Food Products
This research concentrated on the determination of nitrite, nitrate and some biogenic amines in treated local market meat products; using TLC, and HPLC suggested and modified procedures in comparison with proposed spectrometric methods (Ph.D., Hanan Fawzy, 2002, Cairo University). Microbiological tests for all studied samples were also suggested. The results obtained showed that, nitrite and nitrate concentration decreased in cured meat by addition of polyphosphate reagents than in non-cured samples; which consequently affected the levels of biogenic amines. Biogenic amines concentrations were also increased by the increase of the preservation time in all treatments. The integration between different techniques of treatments and analyses technology was efficiently help to get the complete picture of the tested products.
3- Studies on Toxicity and Carcinogenic Reactivity of Some Phenolic Compounds Coming from Different Egyptian Resources:
The importance of this research stems from the fact that some simple phenolic compounds such as nitro-, amino-phenols, cresols, xylenols, and di-hydric phenols have toxic and carcinogenic activity during its penetration into animal, organisms or human bodies as a result of air and aquatic environmental pollutants. This toxicity and carcinogenic activity of these phenols are mostly coming from the reducing properties of their active hydroxyl groups. The research in this point is focused on the use of integrated analytical tools to study their activities and the mechanisms of their reactions with selective oxidants (19, 20) and specific reagents to remedy their toxicity as a first step and finally their micro-determination in their resources.
This research started with studying the inorganic reaction mechanism of oxidation of phenol derivatives with iodine as a mild oxidizing agent and its derivatives or using other oxidants in solutions leaving no toxic redox reaction products (20-27). It involved kinetic study, suggestion of possible reaction schemes (19, 21, 25, 28), and calculation of thermodynamic parameters (21, 25, 29, 30). This study also involved the selection of proper conditions for quantitative determination of these phenols (20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 31 and 32). This is followed by separation and structure identification of the redox reaction products by thermal analyses (23, 32), emanation thermal analysis (27) elemental analyses, IR and 1HNMR and mass spectroscopic methods of analyses (33-35). The structure identification of the separated redox products supported the proposed reaction mechanisms (21, 22, 28, 30, and 32). This study is also succeeded in the estimation of quantity of iodine required to remedy toxicity of simple phenols to Egyptian Carp fish in delta breading station, Ministry of Water irrigation and resources, El-Qanater, Egypt (M.Sc. of the student Maha M. Ali, 1990). In some instances redox reaction polymeric products are obtained. These polymers are structurally identified and used as analytical reagents for estimation of pH of concentrated acids and bases solutions, in terms of acidity function (36-38), which cannot be measured by normal pH paper or pH-meter. This research point was extended to cover extraction of toxic phenols from three kinds of tobacco leaves; which are usually used in manufacturing of different kinds of cigarettes in many companies in Egypt. It involved also the extraction of phenols by ignition and extraction designed system; together with the design of three kinds of ion-selective electrodes and selective spectrophotmetric reagents for microdetermination of the extracted phenols by different systems. A comparative discussion had been done between phenol contents of leaves and cigarettes in order to evaluate their toxicity for smokers (Ph.D. of Fatama Hussam El-Dien, 1995).
4- Analysis of potable, surface and underground water contents coming from different Egyptian Resources:
The importance of using integrated analytical tools in collecting and analyses of water of different types from different sources in Egypt stems from the importance of water for different life sides. Egypt is a gift of the River Nile; therefore many projects are continuously proposed to follow the water quality along the River (e.g. Egyptian-Canadian Project, 1990-1992). Also the ground water becomes one of essential source for drinking and irrigation in Egypt villages; therefore the continuous monitoring of its quality by analysis using integrated analytical tools is very important. Therefore, our research using integrated analytical is focused to share water analyses projects conducted in Ministry of irrigation and Water resources. It starts within the period of 1990-1992 via M.Sc. of the Student Kamal Rabie. It involved seasonal variation of water quality of Nile River at Helwan area (18). This research involved collection of water samples by using boat trips together with collecting fish, sediments, and some plants in the river like water Hyacinth. The samples of sediments, water Hyacinth (39) and fish parts were digested by microwave system to prepare the samples for effective atomic absorption and ICP-ES analyses (18,39).The research in this point is also involved monitoring of pesticide levels in some water supplies and agricultural land in El-Haram, Giza (40a). This research has been extended to cover evaluation of potable and underground water in el-Behera Governorate (40b), Egypt in cooperative work between Cairo University-Alexandria University and El-Behera Drinking Water and Sanitary Drainage Company via the Ph.D. thesis of the student Adel Abdou El-Hadad, in 2006. This research involved a team work for collecting water samples from the ground water at eighteen wells of Kom Hamada Sector; and their analyses by using integrated analytical tools (41). This research aims to put a map of the suitable wells that can be used as sources for preparing potable water for drinking purposes for villages in this area.
5- Analyses of Important Plants Used for Preparation of Different Kinds of Egyptian Natural Drinks:
This research involved the use of more than one analytical technique in integrated way to study the inorganic and organic constituents of three popular and highly demanded nutrition plants, in Egypt (Ph.D. of Khlid Anderia Essa, 1992). They were chosen to be investigated due to their uses in our country as drinking extract sources; they are fenugreek (seeds), Roselle (Karkade, Hibiscus flower) and licorice (roots). At the beginning, the inorganic contents of these three plants are extracted by normal boiling in second distilled water and the extract contents were measured by atomic absorption (AAS), Direct current plasma emission (DCP-ES), and inductively coupled plasmas emission spectrometry (ICP-ES) and the data obtained are compared and evaluated. It was varied from one tool to another, due to the variation of their accuracy and detection limits.
More than one extraction and digestion technique was used in order to evaluate the efficiency of each one to extract cations and anion contents of the three edible plants. It starts with kjeldahl flask acid digestion and end with the highly efficient microwave acid digestive technique. The results of analysis using ICP-ES refer to the variation of metal contents of each sample depending upon the accuracy and efficiency of the digestive system; maximum values are obtained by microwave system (39).
6- Analytical Studies on chemical interaction between soil and soil amendments:
A) (Clinoptilolite) and ammonium salt:
Considerable attention is currently being given to ways of improving environmental sciences. Interest in this research has developed from the urgency to solve practical problems related to the environment requirements. The presence of ammonia has become a rigorous threat to the environment since it is considered a serious pollution problem. Based on toxicity and mobility indexes, ammonium ion has the highest hazard index of the pollutant tested. In most countries, the removal of ammonium ion from effluent has become a necessity. The main nitrogen removal methods are biological nitrification, denitrification, ammonia air stripping, chemical treatment, and selective ion exchange. The ion exchange process employs a new class of inorganic materials, which is a zeolite molecular sieve.
Clinoptilolite, [Cax(Na,K)6-2x]. (Al6Si30O72).24H2O is one the most abundant and economically important natural zeolites. The selectivity of Clinoptilolite for different inorganic cations has the following order:
Cs+ < Rb+ < K+ < NH4+ < Ba2+ < Sr2+ < Na+ <Ca2+ < Fe3+ <Al3+ <Mg2+
Thus, Clinoptilolite is selective for NH4+ with respect to all other cations commonly found in municipal wastewater except K+.
Therefore; the ultimate goals of this research are:
a- the characterization of physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the natural Clinoptilolite collected from Richmond in Utah, USA and From Egyptian sources (1992-1994).
b- The study of the effect of particle size on quantitative determination of the cation exchange capacity and the amount of exchangeable cations.
c- The prediction and description of the ion-exchange equilibrium between Clinoptilolite and isotherm solutions as a function of solution concentrations of ions to obtain the isothermal data for different size fractions of K-saturated Clinoptilolite, and to derive related thermodynamic parameters.
d- The calculation of the NH4+ loading by different size fractions of K- Clinoptilolite.
e- The evaluation of the amount of adsorbed NH4+ on K- Clinoptilolite at various proper conditions.
f- The study of the effect of time, and temperature on the amount of adsorbed NH4+ by K- Clinoptilolite at different particle sizes (Kinetic Studies).
g- The identification of the suitable mathematical models that best describe NH4+ adsorption processes for various particle sizes and at different temperatures.
This research reached conclusion that; Egyptian Clinoptilolite is of the same quality as a soil amendment like that coming from Utah, Richmond Cache Country Utah USA. This research is already published (42 and 43).
B) Studies on some factors affecting Heat Capacity of Some Egyptian Desert Soils:
This research is an attempt to clarify the effect of organic additions as soil amendment with the most advised rates to two types of desert soils; Sandy and Calcareous. Both are widely occurred in Egyptian deserts, so the role of organic additions in changing some physical, physico-chemical and chemical properties of theses soils is the main target of this research via M.Sc. of Amal Abd El-Mohsen Ahmed, Institute of Desert Research, Egypt in cooperative with our research team in Cairo University. This work had been carried out also to investigate some main activation factors such as percent of organic matter addition, salinity levels, time electrical conductivity, pH, and moisture retention effect on heat capacity of Sandy and Calcareous soils. The data obtained concluded the increase of heat capacity of both soils with increasing of humic substances as organic soil amendment additives; pH and moisture retention but heat capacity decrease by increasing of salinity levels in both soils. The other important targets of this research were the relations of heat capacity with some soil macro and micro inorganic nutrients such as phosphorous, iron, manganese and zinc. The data obtained concluded definite positive significant relations of heat capacity with phosphorous, iron and manganese except zinc, which has negative relation in both soils (44 and 45).
7- Technology Development of Storing Propellants:
Through the cooperation projects one finished since 1998 (A), and the new up-to-date one (2009) (B) between Faculty of Science, Cairo University and Military Production Authority (MPA), our school research work group presents efforts to create novel Organic (A) and Inorganic (B) stabilizers for some kinds of propellants:
A) Study of Malonanilides as Stabilizers for Double-Base Propellants:
The double-base propellants have many applications in the military purposes as propellant materials. In most cases they need to be stored for a long time in high temperature conditions; which changes their chemical properties and may lead to dangerous explosions. Therefore, this research (Ph.D. of M.A.M. Hassan, 1998) concentrated on preparation of new stabilizers, and to study their effects on thermal stability of double-base propellants. It involved, characterization of the prepared stabilizers and comparing their characters with the classical stabilizers using classical thermal stability tests (e.g. Abel Test, Dutch Test) together with the updated Thermal analyses techniques (TGA and DSC) were used for studying thermal properties of these stabilizers and propellants. The molecular orbital calculations (MOCS) were performed to study physicochemical characterizations of the prepared stabilizers and their effects on stabilization of double-base propellants (46).
B) The Use of Newly Suggested Inorganic Stabilizers:
The propellants stabilizers like inorganic adsorbents are substances which, by virtue of their chemical constitution, can react with the products of decomposition of smokeless powders and remove them. They do not prevent decomposition, but they stop the catalytic action of products of decomposition such as NO, NO2, HNO2, and HNO3. They stabilize the powder by removing the products of decomposition as soon as they are formed and so the decomposition reaction being un-catalyzed and the powder will have a much longer serviceable life.
In this field and through new project (2009), M.Sc. of the student (Hossam Saleh), shall use newly separated nano-particle zeolite (Clinoptilolite) from Egyptian Kaolin in Free State and as composite mixed with selected organics as stabilizers for double base propellants. The work shall be done in Military Plant (18).
8- Drug Analyses Using Integrated Analytical Tools:
The research in this part is actually focused to solve an important problem in Egypt and in Arab world that, in pharmaceutical companies mostly drug analyses techniques depend on the use of imported kits of analytical reagents to analyze the manufactured drugs in these companies. Therefore, our research in this point is focused on searching for finding accurate, simple, cheap and reliable procedures to follow manufacturing processes of drugs and analyses of the final pharmaceutical products in these companies. The integration between different analytical tools could successfully achieve this target through cooperation between Cairo University and National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCR). This research started by suggesting new procedures for spectrophotometric determination of salbutamol via formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes with some π-acceptor organic reagents and procedures for mictrodetermination of piroxicam and tenoxicam in pharmaceutical preparation using iodate reagent by applying both spectrophotometric and potentiometric new suggested and tested procedures via an M.Sc. thesis of the Student (Mrs.) Manal Abd-Elhamid El-shall (1996). This work is already published (47 and 48). This research was also developed by suggesting new procedures for spectrophotometric microdetermination of chlorquine and pyrimethamine via formation of colored ion-pair with molybdenum thiocyanate and via formation of CT-complexes with other π- and σ- acceptors, through the M.Sc. thesis of the student (Mrs.) Hoda Mostafa Mohamed El-Qudaby (2001). This research was also published (49). Other research activities in our group confirmed the idea of integrated analytical tools together with Molecular orbital calculations used in structure elucidation of drugs, its metabolites and complexes formed in vitro and vivo system were already published (50-65)
In Saudi Arabia during the period of my work there; this research activity had been developed through project of seven years (2002-2008). This project involved cooperation between Cairo University- Faculties of Education of Girls (in Riyadh and El-Qassim)- El-Qassim Industrial Drug Company – King Abdul Aziz City for Research and Technology. This research resulted in a Ph.D. thesis of the student (Mrs.) Abeer Ali Abulrahman Al-Habeeb (2007). This research part had been started with suggestion of two simple and accurate spectrophotometric methods for determination of Buspirone Hydrochloride, Sertraline Hydrochloride and Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride. These methods were based on the reaction of each drug as a secondary amine with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and Iodine Reagents. Also, this work studied fragmentation behavior of the drugs using MS, TA and MOC (52, 54, 57,60 , 63, 64 and 65). The drug-iodine products were prepared and also investigated in comparison with drug itself in pure and in Pharmaceutical preparations of Buspirone, Sertraline and Diphenhydramine. From different companies were determined spectrophotometrically using TCNE and I2 reagents .The results obtained by the proposed procedure was compared with those obtained by the standard published methods. The data obtained by both procedures were found to be very close to each other and very close to those given by the published pharmacopoeia methods. It also involved Kinetic and Spectrophotometric study to throw more light on the mechanism and the nature of the reaction between Sertraline and iodine then the use of the Kinetic data for microdetermination of Sertraline (64) This study also aimed to declare how the collective integrated techniques help to understand the fragmentation pathways of these drugs by TA and MS and how the MOC supports the explanation of these suggestions (60-65), which help to explain and to understand what, is happened for these drugs during their digestion in vivo systems after their administration to the body of patients. This study involved the following main steps:
- Preparation of the solid products (drug- Iodine) and to investigated their structures using elemental analyses, IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, MS and TA.
- The comparative study between the fragmentation pathways of the drugs and their iodine products showed that the insertion of iodine atom to the drug skeleton changes distinctly its TA and MS fragmentation pathways, due to the change of its stability.
- The biological activity of the drugs increases with the introduction of iodine into its skeleton, where the activities of the drugs and its daughters are mainly depend on their fragmentation to give their metabolites in vivo systems, which are very similar to the identified fragments in both MS and TA schemes. This research had been published (48-60).
This research had been extended in the same cooperative team represented by the M.Sc. thesis of the student (Mrs.) El-Gazy Abdullah El-Rasheedy (2008) which was focused on the suggestion of new, simple, accurate and fast procedures for analysis of some drugs and their pharmaceutical products coming from El-Qassim Drugs Company. It included spectrophotometric determination of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride, Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride and Chloroquine phosphate, Tenoxicame, Pyrixocame, and Pyrimethamine. These methods are based on the reaction of each drug as a secondary amine with DDQ via formation of charge transfer complexes (CT-complexes) in acetonitril media under optimum conditions of temperature, time, reactants concentration, and sequence of addition of reactants and with anions of vanadate, molybdate and alizarin red S in universal buffer media of different pH values, at optimum temperature, time and sequence of addition and concentration of reactants via formation of ion-pair compounds. The mechanism of reactions between drugs and reagents had been proposed for formations of both CT-complexes in case of DDQ reagent and ion-pairs in case of other reagents.
The spectrophotometric microdetermination data obtained by applying all the proposed procedures refer to the fact that it is efficiently possible to determine Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride in the concentration range (1-1000 μg/ml), Pseudo ephedrine Hydrochloride (1.2-1200 μg/ml) and Chloroquine phosphate (2.5-2500μg/ml) , Tenoxicame and Pyrixocame (4-4000 μg/ml), and Pyrimethamine (0.5-500 μg/ml) . The vanadate reagent was found to be the most efficient reagent used in the spectrophotometric microdetermination of these drugs and the less efficient one is the DDQ. The data obtained by most procedures (2009) were found to be very close to each other and very close to those given by the published pharmacopoeia methods.
As results of part of this research efforts; newly prepared iodine-drug products are considered to be promising novel drugs. Nowadays we prepared to present them as patents to the Egyptian National Academy Patent Office (ENAPs).
Final Conclusions Emerged from this Research Work:
Many conclusions are obtained from the research done in our group which actually confirmed the success of integration between analytical methodology and different analyses tools and successful collaboration between qualified team of analytical chemistry research group who did this research work.
1- This research is succeeded in analyses of Egyptian phosphate ores in Abu Tartor and help to make a geological map of Upper Egypt area for rare earths in these ores via collaboration with geology department in our Faculty of Science Cairo University and Ministry of Industry.
2- The research succeeded in analysis of Some Egyptian rocks as complicated matrices, after making mathematical modeling of analysis results of rare earth standards by DCP and ICP-AES.
3- This research is also successfully applied to the analysis of Egyptian ceramics and kaolin ores. This research helps the manufacture of simple inorganic salts and some kinds of Egyptian ceramics used in industry of Human bones instead of their import.
4- This research is succeeded in creating new methodology for food analysis, food fortification and food storing. This research helps the institute of Food Technology, Ministry of Agriculture to revaluate their work.
5- This research is succeeded in potable and underground water analysis at Helwan area as quality control of River Nile water and helps the construction of map for wells in El-Behara Governorate that can be used for making potable water for some villages in this area (In Delengat and Kom Hamada centers). This research helps also Ministry of Irrigation to evaluate their monitoring to the River Nile Water Quality.
6- This research refers to the successful integration between physico-chemical, biological and theoretical methods and personnel collaboration for drug analysis. This helps explanation of vivo and vitro fragments and metabolites of these drugs. It also presents new methods for drug analyses in Egypt and Saudi Arabia Factories, instead of importing analytical kits. Part of this research helps also Egyptian Authority for Drug Quality Control to evaluate their work. It resulted in manufacturing of three iodine – drugs products, promising to use them as new developed drugs (as patents).
7- This research is also successfully applied for monitoring of anodizing and phosphate anodizing bathes which solved the problem of repairing some motor parts of public transportation buses in Egypt. These problems are solved in Helwan Engineering Industrial Company (HEIC), military plant 99.
8- The integration between different digestion analytical tools (wet and microwave systems) and the use of normal analytical and advanced spectroscopic techniques (DCP-AES and ICP-AES), helps to give complete analyses and complete picture of extracted organic and inorganic constituents of some Egyptian plants like Karkade, Lucurise, phenogreec as seeds, roots and flowers. These extracts are usually used as Hot or chiller drinks in Egypt and some Arab countries. This research is successfully evaluated their benefits.
9- Such integration between analytical tools is successfully applied for evaluation soil amendments added to carcurious and sandy soils via collaboration with staff of Desert institute.
10- This research team work involved integration between analytical, physical and mathematical tools and chemists and physists is also successfully applied to remedy toxicity of phenolic compounds to Egyptian grass carp fish in delta breading station in El-Qanater, and also to analyses some soil amendments like zeolite coming from Egyptian and American sources. This research as mentioned is succeeded via collaboration between our research group and the research group in UTAH University in USA.
11- Part of this research via collaboration with Ministry of Military Production is also helps in evaluation of some double base propellants stabilizers. This research helps the military to store their propellants safely.
12- This research is also successfully applied to the analysis of three kinds of tobacco leaves and different kids of cigarettes (Local and imports) for their phenolic ignition products, via collaboration with three Egyptian Cigarettes Factories by creating new ion-selective electrodes for phenol analysis. The integration between different analytical tools helps to give complete picture of toxic phenolic residuals present in these leaves and manufactured cigarettes.
13- Part of this research recently involved preparation and characterization of nano composites. Some of these nano materials like SiC coming from Egyptian rice husk ignition and thermal treatments in different atmospheres. The prepared nano SiC has lot industrial uses. The liquid centered form of SiC has several uses, this research succeeded to prepare well dense sintered nano-SiC of wider applications in different fields such as: (a) Electronics in terms of thin films, electronic devices like MOSFET, JFET and in electrical ceramics, (b) bionics, (c) photonics, (d) bio-ceramics, (e) bio-technology, (f) medical instrumentation, explored for important applications (published work in J Hazard Mater 2012).
14- Preparation and characterization of nano-ferro fluids were prepared for hyperthermia uses to remedy cancer cells (published work in Morocco conf. 2015) .
Most of this research is given in my general list of publications (A) and some recent papers (2011-2015) are given in secondary list (B).